Hand-poured with essential oil blend consisting of citronella, lemongrass, lime citronella, vanilla, and lemon eucalyptus. Smells good to humans but not so much for bugs! The water-based spray can be used on clothes and rubbed on skin/ face. Safe for People, kids, dogs, horses and farm-life. Repels mosquitoes, gnats, ticks, black flies, fruit flies and no-see-ums. Approx. 4 hour of application time and two-year shelf life.